»Unique competencies in benchmark processes for software development and IT services«

The reliability of expert judgment depends very much on knowledge, capabilities, and experience and decreases with increasing project size, agility, complexity, and automation degree.
Expert judgments are person-dependent and therefore not objective, hardly reasonable, unprecise, usually not reproducible, and thus not reliable.
Studies prove, that 80 % of all expert judgments have a deviation by a factor 2 - 9 between estimates and actuals.
Facts about success of software and IT projects: Numbers remain »constant« for 20 years


successful = Project met all 3 of 3 constraints: scope, schedule, and cost
challenged = Project met only 2 of 3 constraints: scope, schedule, and cost
failed = Project was canceled before completed or completed but not used

Source: Chaos Report-Studie, Standish Group 2012-2015


Processes and their activities control all progress in departments, service, development, research, operations, support, etc. Each company determines which processes and activities have to be performed. Processes in the area of Software & IT Services have different characteristics and are differentiated by their characteristics agile, iterative, sequential or hybrid.


Process models define stages, phases, activities, roles, and artifacts, as well as the dependencies of activities, their degree of parallelization, the distribution of roles etc. Process models have a very different impact on effort, schedule, and costs. However, this impact is completely independent of the size of a project (see Methods & Metrics).


Typical examples of generic process models (implementation models) in software development are e.g. DevOps, Rapid Application Development (RAD), Rational Unified Process (RUP), Scrum, V-Model XT, Waterfall, etc. and in the field of IT services e.g. ISO / IEC 20000, ITIL v4, etc. A typical example of a specific process model is e.g. SAP Activate.